Development and assessment of novel technologies improving the fishing operation and on board processing with respect to environmental impact and fish quality (DANTEQ)
Norwegian abstract (Abstract in English further below)
Bærekraftig høsting av villfanget fisk er en av de viktigste utfordringene i det globale bildet når det gjelder å skaffe tilstrekkelige mengder fisk. Det ligger et stort potensial i å høste fisk på en bedre måte. Norge er langt fremme både når det gjelder teknologisk utstyrsutvikling og anvendelse av nye fangstkonsepter, men det er fortsatt betydelige utfordringer spesielt i grensesnittet mellom den nye teknologien og fangstbehandling.
Konvensjonelt fiskeri gjennomføres med flere forskjellige fartøykonsepter og redskapstyper. Felles for alle er at råstoffkvalitet og fangstinntekt henger sammen med fangst- og produksjonsprosess ombord med tilhørende investerings- og driftskostnader. Fiskefartøy har i langt større grad enn andre produksjonslokaliteter begrenset handlingsrom for å optimalisere prosessen med hensyn til økonomi og andre parametere som f.eks. miljøbelastning. Dette kommer i første rekke fra begrenset tilgjengelig volum og relativt kostbare tilgjengelige energikilder som f.eks. konvensjonelle oljedrevne motordrifter som benyttes til produksjon av elektrisk energi. Gjennom dette prosjektet har det blitt bygget ny kompetanse og utviklet metoder for å optimalisere håndtering av fisk ombord med hensyn til råstoffkvalitet og energieffektivitet.
Arbeidet i prosjektet har vært delt opp i fire ulike arbeidsområder (RA). Innen RA1 ble effekten av korttids levendelagring av fisk før slakting og elektrobedøving studert. I RA2 så man nærmere på kjøle- og frysesystemer ombord og effekt på råstoffkvalitet. I RA3 logget man energiforbruk fra ulike kilder ombord på trålere for videre å kunne benytte disse dataene til energieffektiv drift av fiskefartøy. I RA4 ble det utviklet matematiske modeller og metoder for simulering av fangstbehandling og fabrikkprosesser ombord. Resultatene fra de ulike arbeidsområdene i prosjektet er oppsummert under.
Kortidslevendelagring av fisk før avliving ga følgende resultater:
• Ved korte tauetider og forholdsvis små fangster oppnår man en overlevelse på 50–80 % for torsk (tetthet i tanken varierte fra 120 til 550 kg/m3).
• Fiskedybde har innvirkning på overlevelsesgrad.
• Stressnivået i fisken så ut til å være lavere rett etter fangst enn etter lagring levende i tanken (ikke alltid signifikante forskjeller).
• Det var noe mindre blod i filetene fra levendelagret fisk og fisk som ble bløgget rett etter fangst sammenlignet med kommersielt prosessert fisk.
Elektrobedøving av fisk ga følgende resultater:
• Spenning på 40 V DC er tilstrekkelig for å oppnå tilfredsstillende immobilisering og lettere håndtering i forbindelse med videre prosessering (bløgging/ sløying/ hodekapping) for hyse, torsk og sei.
• Tre elektroderekker på bedøveren (strømbelastning i 4–6 sekunder) er tilstrekkelig for å oppnå tilfredsstillende immobilisering.
• Elektrobedøving av sei førte til ryggknekk og bloduttredelser på mellom 10 og 40 % av fisken.
Innfrysning av torsk gav følgende resultater:
• Pre-rigor torsk frosset i magnetisk felt (Cell Alive System) gav minimale forskjeller i kvalitet sammenliknet med tradisjonell tunnelfrysing og frysing i fryserom til tross for ulik innfrysningshastighet.
• Mekanismen for frysing i magnetisk felt så ut til å være de samme som for tradisjonell innfrysning.
Kjøling av torsk og hyse ombord gav følgende resultater:
• Slurrylagret torsk og hyse hadde ulik mikrostruktur sammenliknet med torsk og hyse lagret på flakis.
• For hyse ble det funnet forskjeller i farge og QIM-score lagret på slurry og flakis.
Logging av operasjonelle data ga følgende resultater:
• Programvare for innsamling og lagring av operasjonelle data har blitt utviklet. System for logging av operasjonelle data har blitt installert ombord to trålere.
• Programvare for effektiv analyse av operasjonelle data ble utviklet og brukt til å lage driftsprofiler.
Modellutvikling ga følgende resultater:
• Ulike simuleringsmetoder har blitt vurdert for simulering av fangstbehandlingsprosesser, og man har sett nærmere på bruk av diskret-hendelsessimulering som den best egnede metoden.
• Matematiske/statistiske modeller for ulike fabrikkprosesser har blitt utviklet, bl.a. basert på målinger gjort ombord i fiskefartøy.
• Det har blitt utviklet “proof of concept”-programvare som demonstrerer nevnte metoder og modeller i praksis, og som viser at simulering av prosesslinjer kan bli et nyttig verktøy i fremtiden.
Through this project new competence and new methods for optimal handling of whitefish onboard with respect to raw material quality and energy efficiency have been developed. The Project was divided into four research areas: (1) catch handling, (2) chilling and freezing, (3) energy systems and (4) modelling. The main results from the final report are given below:
1. Catch handling
Short time live storage of fish before killing
When towing times are short and catches are small a survival of 50–80 per cent was found for cod (density of fish in the storage tank varied from 120 to 550 kg/m3). The fishing depth has influence on survival rate. The stress level of the fish was lower straight after catch than after storage in live tanks onboard (not always significant differences). Less blood was found in fillets from live stored fish and fish processed straight after catch compared to commercial processed fish.
Electro stunning of fish
Voltage of 40 V DC is enough to achieve satisfactory immobilizing and easier handling of catch in connection with further processing (bleeding/gutting/heading) for cod, haddock and saithe. Three rows of electrodes on the stunner (current load for 4–6 seconds) is enough to achieve satisfactory immobilization. Electro stunning of saithe lead to broken backbone and bloodspots on 10 to 40 per cent of the fish.
2. Chilling and freezing
Freezing of cod
Pre-rigor cod frozen in a magnetic field (Cell Alive System) achieved minimal differences in quality compared to traditional tunnel freezing and freezing in a cold room, in spite of different freezing rates. The mechanism for freezing of fish in magnetic field appeared to be simular to that of traditional freezing methods.
Chilling of cod and haddock
Fish stored in slurry had a different microstructure and different water distribution, measured by low field NMR, than those stored in flake ice. Differences in color and QIM-score were found for haddock stored under the two conditions.
3. Energy systems
Logging of operational data
Software for acquisition and storage of operational data has been developed. Systems for acquisition and storage of operational data, as well as transfer of the data to an on-shore server, have been installed on-board two trawlers. Software for efficient analysis of operational data has been developed and used to generate operational profiles.
Methods and models for simulating catch handling processes have been developed, along with proof-of-concept software that demonstrates their practical use. Discrete event simulation seems to be a very suitable method for simulating and evaluating fish processing lines, though more work needs to be done with regards to model quality and validation. Acquiring high-quality data about catch handling processes for modelling purposes is difficult and labour-intensive. Future experiments should be designed to focus more on individual processes and less on the whole line, and should aim to keep better track of the ‘human factors’ that add noise and affect the outcome.
1-Final report: Development and assessment of novel technologies improving the fishing operation and on board processing with respect to environmental impact and fish quality (DANTEQ)
SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture. Report A27309. November 2015. By Ida Grong Aursand, Hanne Digre, Jarle Ladstein, Lars Tandle Kyllingstad, Ulf Erikson, Guro Møen Tveit, Christoph Backi and Karl-Johan Reite.
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)/ Aalborg University. October 2014. By Christoph Josef Backi (NTNU), Jan Tommy Gravdahl (NTNU) and John Leth (Aalborg University).
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)/ SINTEF. Juni 2013. By Christoph Josef Backi (NTNU), Jan Tommy Gravdahl (NTNU) and Esten Ingar Grøtli (SINTEF).
Conference paper: Optimal boundary control for the heat equation with application to freezing with phase change.
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). Conference paper. January 2013. By Christoph Josef Backi and Jan Tommy Gravdahl.
Conference paper: Properties of a Heat Equation with State-Dependent Parameters and Asymmetric Boundary Conditions.
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)/ Aalborg University. June 2015. By Christoph Josef Backi (NTNU), Jan Tommy Gravdahl (NTNU), and John Leth (Aalborg University).
Conference paper: The nonlinear heat equation with state-dependent parameters and its connection to the Burgers' and the potential Burgers' equation.
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) / Aalborg University. August 2014. By Christoph Josef Backi (NTNU), Jan Tommy Gravdahl (NTNU) and John Leth (Aalborg University).
SINTEF/ Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). January 2015.
Fact Sheet: Electrical stunning of Atlantic Cod, haddock and saithe - effect on fish welfare, handling stress and quality.
SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, Norway/ Livestock Research, Wagening, The Netherlands/ IMARES Wagening, The Netherlands. October 2013.
SINTEF /Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). February 2013.
SINTEF/ Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU. July 2013.
SINTEF. Presentasjon av DANTEQ-prosjektet. Av Ida Grong Aursand.
WWW.RESEARCHMEDIA.EU Artikkel med informasjon om DANTEQ-prosjektet.
Presentasjon: Arbeidspakke 2: Frysing av torsk ved hjelp av CAS og tradisjonell innfrysing - kvalitetseffekter
SINTEF. Presentasjon på prosjektmøte hos SINTEF i Trondheim 28. mai 2014.
SINTEF. Presentasjon på prosjektmøte hos SINTEF i Trondheim 28. mai 2014.
SINTEF Fiskeri og havbruk. Presentasjon på prosjektmøte hos SINTEF i Trondheim 28. mai 2014. Av Karl-Johan Reite.
SINTEF/NTNU. Presentasjon på prosjektmøte hos SINTEF i Trondheim 28. mai 2014. Av Christoph Josef Backi (NTNU).
SINTEF. Presentasjon på prosjektmøte hos SINTEF i Trondheim 28. mai 2014. Av Lars Tandle Kyllingstad (SINTEF Fiskeri og havbruk AS).
SINTEF. Presentasjon på prosjektmøte hos SINTEF i Trondheim 28. mai 2014.
SINTEF. Presentasjon på prosjektmøte hos SINTEF i Trondheim 28. mai 2014.
Scientific article (abstract): Effects of on-board storage and electrical stunning of wild cod (Gadus morhua)
Fisheries Research. Abstract in Fisheries Research 127–128: 1–8. 2012. By E. Lambooij (Wageningen UR Livestock Research), H. Digre (SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture), H. G. M. Reimert (Wageningen UR Livestock Research), I. G. Aursand (SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture), L. Grimsmo (SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture), J. W. van de Vis (Wageningen UR IMARES).
The sustainable yield in modern fisheries is limited by the stocks and quotas. However, there are still room for improvement within these restrictions. The most notable possibilities for such improvements are in reducing the environmental impact (consumption of fossil fuel) per kg caught fish and in safeguarding the initial fish quality, thereby increasing the part of the catch for human consumption. The Norwegian fishing fleet’s most important challenge involves reducing operation costs, spill and emission while simultaneously maintaining a high utilization of the catch and an improved fish quality.
On board handling
In the latter years, the Norwegian fishing fleet has moved towards bigger vessels and increased capacity pr vessel. Simultaneously the labour cost for fishermen has increased. Due to this, each fisherman must handle increased quantities of fish, and it poses a challenge both with respect to fish quality and safety. In addition, both national and international legislation focus more on animal health and welfare aspects in fish production. Once fish are captured and handled, some quality loss is inevitable. Nevertheless an unnecessary portion of the catch has reduced quality as a result of inadequate fishing gear and operation of the fishing gear, not efficient catch handling before bleeding/gutting, or bottlenecks in the on board handling systems. Crowding stress, pressure, various gear-related injuries etc., are all factors affecting time of premature death, and at a later stage reduced fillet quality. Often the cause of death is anoxia as the fish are left in air. Although not widely studied, it has been shown that catching methods and subsequent on board handling affect fish quality (Valdimarsson et al., 1984; Botta et al.,1987; Hattula et al., 1995; Esaiassen et al., 2004; Özyurt et al., 2007). Time before gutting has been shown to be more important than the bleeding/gutting methods (Botta et al., 1986). Increasing catch quality gives better product prices, contributes to reduced discards, an increased part of the catch for human consumption and a more sustainable fishery. This is what the fishing companies in any case will be confronted with as the regulation (control) of fisheries constantly will be tightened throughout the world.
Chilling along the processing chain immediately after catch and during storage is another important issue related to both fish quality and energy consumption on board a fishing vessel. In the latter years, new technologies such as CAS aiming at improving fish quality have been developed. However, the effects on quality are often not well documented, and, to help the industry making the right choices based on effects on quality and energy consumption in combination, there is a need to establish new knowledge on the area. Novel non-invasive measuring techniques such as low-field NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) combined with traditional analyses (water holding capacity, water activity and histology) have shown to be excellent tools for increasing the knowledge on quality effects of fish processing (Steen and Lambelet, 1997; Aursand et al, 2009).
A major challenge within the fisheries is the emission of climate gasses and particles. Norway has adopted international agreements, such as the Kyoto and the Gothenburg protocols (Norwegian Pollution Authority and Ministry of the Environment 2000), where Norway is committed to reduce the emissions of green-house gases, and fishing vessels has been selected as one area where the emissions should be reduced. In addition, the high energy consumption combined with increasing energy prices is causing profitability problems. So far ship-owners have met this challenge with modern machinery and propulsion system modifications while exhaust cleaning (e.g. catalyzers) and diesel-electric systems are seldom to find in fishing vessels yet. Promising new technologies exist, as well as a plethora of different energy components. The industry is, however, conservative, and is only slowly taking advantage of the possibilities herein.
The onboard fish handling systems, refrigeration technology and energy systems are strongly inter-connected, mainly because they are competing for the same space and energy. The general energy systems may contain components both producing and consuming electric heat and mechanical energy, while the refrigeration, the handling systems are likely not to produce electric energy. Strong bindings may exist between the refrigeration and fish handling systems and the energy system of the fishing vessels in the form of electric and thermal energy. This affects the quality of the fish, and improvements are possible.
One key question is how to ensure enough cooling capacity for peek loads without adding more machinery than necessary. To do this, the fluctuations in demands on the rest of the energy system must also be taken into account. Therefore, to optimize the fishing vessel in terms of both fish quality, choice of chilling/freezing technology and energy systems an overall model is needed.
To achieve the goal of an optimized fishing vessel a close collaboration between the fishing fleet, equipment vendors, shipyards and RTD institutes with the right knowledge is essential. Within this consortium, actors from all the above mentioned sectors are gathered. The project will create a base of know-how, educated personnel, and optimal technology, which are preconditions for a strategic orientation of the Norwegian fishing fleet which is of utmost importance to meet the future demands from both governments and consumers.
To improve the fishing vessel operation, energy system design and the on board fish processing with respect to fish quality and environmental impact.
1) To develop novel on board automated catch handling systems safeguarding the initial fish quality as well as the fishermen’s HSE (health, safety and environment).
2) To improve refrigeration onboard a fishing vessel with regard to fish quality, installed equipment capacity, space requirement etc. and energy consumption.
3) To provide the foundation for quantitative analysis of the on-board machinery and energy systems for a fishing vessel defined by its operational profile (including refrigeration and handling system loads) and physical parameters.
4) The sub goals 1–3 are inherently interconnected, as they compete for the same resources, such as energy and space. Improvements in one area may easily degrade the performance in others, and regarding these areas as separate systems may easily lead to sub optimization. This project will therefore aim to develop a unified system model, allowing the effect of one change to the total system to be predicted. This includes collecting and coupling the models developed in the project into one unified model.
This project aims at providing methods and a simulation framework able to evaluate a complete fishing vessel design, taking into account how the design affects higher-level objectives. The design in this context comprises component choices and operation with respect to on board handling, refrigeration and energy system. The objectives are such as emissions, fuel consumption, costs and maintenance. The methods will be applicable to other kinds of vessels, increasing the possible impact of the project. Norwegian shipyards will benefit from increased know-how, making them more competitive. Norwegian fishing vessel designers will get a competitive advantage by utilizing the methods developed in this project, as they will be able to design more optimized vessels. Norwegian shipowners will benefit from vessels trough improved fuel consumption, fish quality and costs. Furthermore, using the deliveries of this project can help in the branding of Norwegian fisheries sector due to environmental impact, quality and fish welfare. The results of the project can be an important input to environmental labelling of products (e.g. the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)).
The main focus in this project is to address and solve the main technological and economical challenges related to fish quality and energy consumption in the fisheries sector, in order to
meet the economical and environmental challenges as well as to ensure a high quality product for the consumer. The prosject is organized in four research tasks.
Research activity 1 (RA1). Optimized and automated on board handling of fish
As a general observation critical factors influencing the quality during catching and on board handling for the targeted species (cod, haddock and saithe) will be identified and included in this task. Fish caught by either trawl or Danish seine will be used in the practical experiments on board. Different kind of handling system for holding live fish on board can be used e.g. a water-filled holding tank on board, floating cages and wells. Holding tanks can be equipped with oxygen control, water filtering and circulation and temperature control. The possibility of fish recovery in the tank will be evaluated. These studies will be co-ordinated with an ongoing project regarding catch based aquaculture (Teknologiutvikling for fangst, håndtering og føring av levende villfisk (FHF project 900293). Fish behaviour, handling stress, possible damages and (delayed) mortalities will be assessed. The catch will then be stunned according to T2.2.
In this task the main activities will comprise:
• Evaluate present lay-out and design for keeping fish alive from established knowledge in catch based aquaculture and salmon (live) carrier boats
• Design an optimal system for storage of wild caught fish.
Different fish species, mainly cod, haddock and saithe, will be taken from
(a) the current storage method for fish on the vessel and
(b) by using fish from the holding tanks for live fish (T2.1) and electrical stunned using a prototype electrical stunner developed by SeaSide.
Development and verification of equipment and operating procedures tailor made for electrical stunning of wild fish of varying size and species will be performed. Fish behaviour will be assessed during stunning. After each fish is stunned and killed, flesh quality will be assessed with a special focus on visual appearance in the fillets like; blood spots, discoloured areas, residual blood and spine affected. In addition white muscle-pH, muscle twitches, body temperature, weight, length, appearance (skin etc.) will be measured. Fish will be placed in ice for rigor assessments and quality assessments after storage. Machine vision will be used as a tool for an objective measurement of fish quality. Some of the advantages of using machine vision for quality control in this projects are: The abilityto determine and quantify the colours present in a sample, to quantify bleeding and blood spots, to provide a permanent record by keeping the picture, to be able to detect 2D/3D shape and size of the product, and to be able to detect defects and deformation that decrease the quality of products.
• Development of a handling system for live fish maintaining the initial fish quality in the period between transfers from sea until it is bled and gutted.
• Development and verification of equipment and operating procedures of an on board electrical stunning method for wild fish of varying size and species.
• Models predicting the quality of a given product as a function of its handling, including methods for live holding, stunning, bleeding and mechanical handling. The models will be implemented in RA4 “Model synthesis – fish quality and environmental impact”.
• Education of 1 Master student.
• 1–2 peer reviewed papers.
Research Activity 2 (RA2). Refrigeration technology and fish quality
T2.1: Identification of novel chilling/freezing technologies relevant for the fishing fleet – state of the art
Different new novel chilling and freezing technologies will be identified. Investment costs, operating costs and technical possibilities for on board implementation will be evaluated.
T2.2: Choice of LF NMR method and developement of customized data processing
Pre-studies will be done to find the best LF NMR methods for detecting changes in tissue water due to chilling/freezing and customized data processing tools will be developed to analyze NMR data and combine the results with traditional methods. The data processing tools will be used to detect and identify fish quality effects on the choice of chilling/freezing technology.
T2.3: Investigations of novel chilling/freezing technology on fish quality
a) The internal pressure in whole gutted fish during freezing by different technologies. The effect on structure and water binding capacity of the fish muscle after thawing will be studied.
b) NMR, micro-structural analysis and traditional physicochemical methods will be used to assess fish quality by use of different chilling/freezing technologies. CAS will be compared with more traditional chilling/and freezing technology. The work in this task will be case oriented.
• Education of a Post Doc
• Education of 1-2 Master students
• Methods and models to study the effect of new novel chilling/freezing technologies on water properties in fish muscle
• Models predicting the potential energy consumption/savings and thereby the average environmental impact of implementing new chilling/freezing technologies on board fishing vessels
• 2–3 peer reviewed papers
The models developed in RA2 will be implemented in the area “Model synthesis – fish quality and environmental impact”.
Research activity 3 (RA3). Energy systems
Mathematical modeling of power intensive components and subsystems will be performed by using an unified energy conservative approach.
T3.2: Develop sub-programs
It will be developed sub-programs for the conversion of manufacture specific component characteristics to a common mathematical form and establishment of component library. Conversion of manufacture specific capacity table, Müssel diagrams etc. to a common form will be performed by using programming and development of component libraries.
T3.3: Develop software for dimensioning purposes of single components and subsystems
Mathematical methods and software will be developed by using analytical and numerical mathematics.
Choice: Create parameterized models able to reflect different components of the same kind, or create specific models for each component? These models will predict the main consequences and needed input of the component, as a function of its operation. For an engine this would for example include fuel consumption, NOx emissions, CO2 emissions, available waste heat in exhaust, engine cooling water and lubricant oil (in terms of temperature and quantity) and estimated maintenance as a function of its speed and torque. In addition its initial cost and installation cost must be estimated.
• Models for the identified components predicting the main consequences and needed input of the component, as a function of its operation. In addition its initial cost and installation cost will be estimated.
• 1 peer-reviewed publication
• Education of 1 Master student
The models will be implemented in the area “Model synthesis – fish quality and environmental impact”.
Research Activity 4 (RA4). Model synthesis - Fish quality and environment impact
This task will specify the system architecture. This means how the different components will be modelled, how they are to interact, and what objective values they should calculate.
Method: This task must choose between two possible strategies to model the system at hand:
1. The quasi-static approach: In this case the operational profile will be a table of operational phases and the consumption of various components within these. It is here assumed that the consumption of individual consumers is constant (or has a statistical distribution). This may make it difficult to model for example fish quality to the necessary degree of accuracy, but it makes use of the model in optimization algorithms more feasible.
2. Dynamic modelling: The system is modelled as a series of interconnected differential equations. In this case the operational profile will consist of time-series of expected consumption of the consumers, covering typical use of the vessel. This would require more detailed models, and simulation would be more time consuming, but the results would probably be more accurate. For each type of component, it must be decided how to model (inter- or extrapolation from a table of values or parameterized functions) and what to output and what to take as its input. These choices must be made based on what is available of data for the individual component, as well as a compromise between accuracy, simplicity and computational efficiency. This activity must be performed in close cooperation with the Activities 1, 2 and 3.
T4.2: Implement a common simulation framework
The main objective of this task is to implement a common simulation framework according to the system architecture described in Task 4.1. This task will also be responsible for proposing objectives and weights and implement these in an objective function.
Method: It will be central to guide the Activities 1, 2 and 3 in model formulation and implementation. This will be done through exchange of personnel between the activities, as well as frequent meetings.
The objectives and weights will be proposed based on the estimated value these will have for either the shipowner or the society. Typical objectives will be emissions, fuel consumption, maintenance and initial cost.
T4.3: Implement a complete system model
This task will aim at implementing running model of the complete vessel. The objective of this is to demonstrate the feasibility of the chosen methods, as well as to detect flaws in the design of the simulation framework or individual models at a relatively early point in time. It will also be a building block for future optimization routines to use.
Method: Using the simulation framework from the previous tasks, a complete system model will be built from the models created in the Activities 1, 2 and 3. Activity 1 will provide models of how choices made with respect to the fish handling affects e.g. the energy system and the quality of the fish. Activity 2 will provide models of the effect of various refrigeration technologies. Activity 3 will provide models of how various components of the energy system interacts and affects the design objectives.
T4.4: Analyze system performance based on technology choices
This task will run analysis of the complete system for various configurations with respect to chosen technologies, equipment and operational choices.
Method: Several possible combinations of machinery, cooling machinery, onboard handling equipment and operational choices will be identified. These combinations will be implemented in the software and evaluated with respect to the chosen objectives. The objective weights will also be varied, so that their influence on design and operational decisions can be analyzed.
• A unified model for predicting the combined effect of measures that affect topics as diverse as fish quality, energy consumption and environmental impact.
• Education of one PhD student
• 4-5 peer reviewed publications
• Education of 1–2 Master students
Efficient knowledge and competence transfer between industry and R&D will be prioritized.
The research activities in the program will be executed as a combination of basic research activities and concept development in close cooperation with the industry. Case studies will be defined in close collaboration with industry partners, and performed on board fishing vessels. Meetings, workshops and joint R&D activities will be the major channels for result communication to the industry participants. The progress of the work will be published in scientific and popular journals both nationally and internationally. Commercial interesting findings will be sought protected by patenting.
Focus on final publication in peer-review journals and conference proceedings will be kept by all research activities in the project. The publication is secured to the education of one PhD student and one Post doc.
Participation in exhibitions and publication in both national and international media will ensure dissemination of the main achievements of the project.